Fast multiplication

Signed Array Multiplier

In the previous tutorials, a scheme of Unsigned Array Multiplier is discussed. Unsigned Array Multiplier may be useful when we are concerned only about unsigned numbers. But in majority of digital systems, operands can be signed or unsigned and thus a dedicated signed array multiplier is needed. This signed array multiplier can perform multiplication for […]

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Fast Multiplication

The fast multiplication can be achieved in three general ways. The sequential multipliers sequentially generates the partial products and adds them with the previously stored partial products. In the second method, high speed parallel multipliers generate the partial products in parallel and adds them by a fast multi-operand adder. The third method corresponds to use

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Dedicated Square Block

In the previous tutorials, we have discussed techniques which can be used to achieve fast multiplication. But when the multiplicand and the multiplier are same, there must be some way to simplify the implementation. Thus squaring operation does not require the full length hardware of a multiplier. In applications where a squaring operation is required,

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Alternative Techniques for Partial Product Accumulation

Several techniques are suggested for partial products accumulation. Some of them targets to reduce the logic elements to reduce hardware complexity whereas some of them targets to reduce numbers of levels in the tree of partial products to achieve high speed. As the number of levels increases irregularity in the design also increases. The irregularities

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Accumulation of Partial Products for Signed Numbers

Earlier we have discussed how the partial products for a unsigned multiplier can be accumulated using suitable organization and consuming minimum number of counters. In this section, accumulation will be done by considering negative partial products. If some of the partial products are negative numbers represented in two’s complement number system, then matrix of bits

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Implementing Large Multiplier Using Smaller ones

Like Booth’s multiplication algorithm another method reduction of partial products is implementing higher multipliers by smaller ones. The larger multiplier blocks can be realized using smaller multiplier blocks. A multiplier can be realized using four multiplier blocks. This is based on the following equation where is the most significant halve of A, is the most

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Booth’s Multiplication Algorithm

Booth’s multiplication algorithm is based on the fact that fewer partial products are needed to be generated for consecutive ones and zeros. For consecutive zeros, a multiplier only needs to shift the accumulated result to the right without generating any partial products. For example, the accumulated result is shifted one bit right for every ‘0’

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