Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is one of the matrix factorization techniques which can be used to solve linear equations. But this is not the primary objective of SVD. SVD can provide singular values of matrix. Singular values reveal unique information …

QR decomposition is one of the powerful matrix factorization techniques that is used to solve a linear equation, to find matrix inverse or to find pseudo-inverse. In this factorization technique, a matrix (A) is factorized into two matrices Q and …

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal is used in place of a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) to simplify the digital-to-analog conversion process. PWM is used when we need to generate analog voltage corresponding to some digital value. PWM is a …

Ultrasonic sensor is one of the most important sensors which are used for IoT applications. There are plenty of tutorials available in the internet which tells us how to interface an ultrasonic sensor with Arduino and other popular controllers. In …

Almost every FPGA boards are having seven segment display elements. These displays are very useful for displaying data in he form of BCD. Suppose, one design is implemented on FPGA and display of the result is required. Then the result …

A numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) is used for on-chip generation of major signals like cosine, sine, linear frequency modulated (LFM), Gaussian etc. in system on chips (SoCs). These signals can be generated by two ways, either by analog circuitry or …

Signal processing algorithms sometimes involve computation of exponential as well as logarithm. Thus it is important to implement both the functions on digital hardware. In our previous tutorials, we have discussed implementation of exponential function. In this work, design of …

In the previous post, we have discussed the theory for computation of exponential and discussed about its hardware architecture. In this post, we will discuss an alternative architecture to compute the exponential. If we examine the equations which evaluate the …

Signal processing algorithms sometimes involve computation of exponential. Thus it is important to implement the exponential function. In this work, design of digital hardware for exponential function is discussed. Like other elementary functions, exponential function is also computed using the …

I. Introduction Fast Fourier transform (FFT), an efficient technique to perform discrete Fourier transform (DFT), is the most important block in the signal processing domain. FFT is used to convert a signal in time domain to its frequency domain. On …